This course has been designed for anyone who is interested to learn about the male and female reproductive systems of human. This is good for general knowledge as well as it has the exam specification of Biology/ IGCSE/ GCSE/ O level/ AQA/ CheckPoint and Other syllabus. After the completion of this course you will be able to:
  • Identify and name on diagrams of the male reproductive system: the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis, and state the functions of these parts
  • Identify and name on diagrams of the female reproductive system: the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these parts
  • Describe fertilisation as the fusion of the nuclei from a male gamete (sperm) and a female gamete (egg cell/ovum)
  • State the adaptive features of sperm, limited to flagellum and the presence of enzymes
  • State the adaptive features of egg cells, limited to energy stores and a jelly coating that changes after fertilisation
  • State that in early development, the zygote forms an embryo which is a ball of cells that implants into the wall of the uterus
  • State the functions of the umbilical cord, placenta, amniotic sac and amniotic fluid
  • Outline the growth and development of the fetus in terms of increasing complexity in the early stages and increasing size towards the end of pregnancy
  • Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant women, limited to special dietary needs and the harm from smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Outline the processes involved in labour and birth, limited to:
– breaking of the amniotic sac
– contraction of the muscles in the uterus
– dilation of the cervix
– passage through the vagina
– tying and cutting the umbilical cord
– delivery of the afterbirth 
  • Compare male and female gametes in terms of size, structure, motility and numbers
  • Explain the adaptive features of sperm, limited to flagellum, mitochondria and enzymes in the acrosome
  • Explain the adaptive features of egg cells, limited to energy stores and the jelly coat that changes at fertilisation
  • Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products and providing a barrier to toxins and pathogens (structural details are not required)
  • State that some toxins, e.g. nicotine, and pathogens, e.g. rubella virus, can pass across the placenta and affect the fetus
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using formula milk
  • Describe the roles of testosterone and oestrogen in the development and regulation of secondary sexual characteristics during puberty 
  • Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the ovaries and in the lining of the uterus
  • Describe the sites of production of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy 
  • Explain the role of hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, limited to FSH, LH, progesterone and oestrogen 
  • Methods of birth control in humans 
  • Outline the following methods of birth control: – natural, limited to abstinence, monitoring body temperature and cervical mucus – chemical, limited to IUD, IUS, contraceptive pill, implant and injection – barrier, limited to condom, femidom, diaphragm – surgical, limited to vasectomy and female sterilisation Supplement 
  • Outline the use of hormones in contraception and fertility treatments 
  • Outline artificial insemination (AI) 
  • Outline in vitro fertilisation (IVF) 
  • Discuss the social implications of contraception and fertility treatments 
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) 
  • Define sexually transmitted infection as an infection that is transmitted via body fluids through sexual contact 
  • State that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of an STI 
  • Explain how the spread of STIs is controlled 
  • Describe the methods of transmission of HIV 
  • State that HIV infection may lead to AIDS 
  • Outline how HIV affects the immune system, limited to decreased lymphocyte numbers and reduced ability to produce antibodies
Who is the target audience?
  • Anyone who seeks knowledge about the topic.

Aucun commentaire